CHAPTER 2 -- SOME SPECIAL FEATURES OF WING CHOON KUNGFU
Wing Choon Kungfu
Wing Choon Kungfu is sometimes regarded as a gentleman's kungfu because its form and applications are generally gentle and non-aggressive. Secondly, as the performance in a Wing Choon set, or the actual applications of Wing Choon patterns in combat, are not elaborate nor vigorous, it is possible for a man in his tie or overcoat, or even a lady in her long evening gown, to demonstrate Wing Choon Kungfu without tearing the dress. This would not be feasible in many other styles of kungfu, like Praying Mantis and Choy-Li-Fatt, or in other systems of martial arts, like Taekwondo and Siamese Boxing, where limb-stretching or long-reaching movements are frequent. Because its movements are generally short or little, it requires only little space, as little as nine square feet, to practice Wing Choon Kungfu.
Because of its small, unostentatious movements, Wing Choon movements are not impressive to watch, but it is exceedingly effective for combat. The third reason for its gentlemanly features is that calmness, superior techniques, speed and soft force -- not ferocity nor brutal strength -- are emphasized in Wing Choon Kungfu. Hence, such demanding and vehement exercises as thrusting hands into beans or smashing legs against poles to harden them are virtually absent in Wing Choon training. A Wing Choon master often looks gentle and unbattled; he does not normally wear tell-tale signs like callous fists nor muscular arms.
These non-elaborate, non-aggressive aspects of Wing Choon Kungfu are not co-incidental. Founded by a lady, Wing Choon Kungfu is specially tailored for those exponents who need not depend on sheer size nor physical strength.
Yim Wing Choon
One important style that evolved from Shaolin Kungfu during the Qing Dynasty was Wing Choon Kungfu. The founder, Yim Wing Choon, was a beautiful lady and only daughter of a bean-curd seller from Fujian Province. She learned Shaolin Kungfu from the highly esteemed Shaolin nun, Nu Mui (pronounced as "Wu Mei" in Mandarin), probably at the Forest-of-Laughing-Buddhas Zen Chamber not far from the Shaolin Monastery in Fujian. Later she married a Cantonese merchant named Leong Pok Khow and followed her husband to Kwangtung Province.
"Yim Wing Choon" is a Cantonese pronunciation; in Mandarin it is "Yan Yong Chun". The evolution and development of Wing Choon Kungfu occured about 150 years ago (in about 1975), chiefly in Kwangtung. Thus, many terms in Wing Choon Kungfu, and similarly in the other styles that also developed in Kwangtung, are generally known in Cantonese, the dialect of the Kwangtung Province.
Yim Wing Choon found the Shaolin Kungfu of Ng Mui too "hard" and elaborate for her needs. She set to modify it, substituting the "hard' techniques with "soft" ones, and simplifying the elaborate movements. Like Zhang San Feng many centuries before her, it is said that Yim Wing Choon drew inspiration from witnessing a fight between a crane and a snake. Most of Wing Choon patterns, therefore, emulate the forms or manifestations of the crane and the snake. The crane and the snake, incidentally, are the "softest" of the five major Shaolin animals.
Despite her marriage, Yim Wing Choon insisted on her daily practice of kungfu. In this way she taught her gentlemanly and scholarly husband the style of kungfu she had evolved.
At this time, Cantonese opera (the counterpart of Peking opera, a dramatic performance of songs, dances and acrobatics by actors wearing colourful costumes) was very popular in Kwangtung. Opera troupes sailed from places to places for their performances in specially built boats red-boats or show-boats, which also doubled as their living quarters. Leong Pok Khow taught Wing Choon Kungfu to his two opera-actor friends, Wong Wah Poh and Leong Yi Tai.
Wong Wah Poh bequeathed Wing Choon Kungfu to Leong Chan, a renowned pugilist in Fatt San District of Kwangtung. One of Leong Chan's outstanding disciples, Chan Wah Soon, taught Yip Man, who propagated Wing Choon Kungfu in Hong Kong and later Yip Man's disciples spread Wing Choon Kungfu to many countries. Many Wing Choon exponents today are descended from this lineage of succession.
Choe Family Wing Choon is a succession lineage from Leong Yi Tai
Succession Lineage of Leong Yi Tai
Meanwhile another succession lineage issued from Leong Yi Tai. For one of his opera performances, Leong Yi Tai sailed to the Phoon Yue District of Kwangtung. The people of Phoon Yue were traditionally steeped in kungfu, and one of the best pugilists of the time was Yik Kam, a master of the Choy-Li-Fatt Style.
It was Yik Kam's hobby to discuss kungfu with whoever kungfu masters he met, and these discussion often led to friendly (sometimes hostile) challenges. Yik Kam had never lost. Wing Choon Kungfu was almost unknown then, and when Yik Kam saw the vastly different but prosaic style of kungfu Leong Yi Tai demonstrated, Yik Kam was greatly puzzled but totally unimpressed. Incidentally, Wing Choon Kungfu is a notable contrast to Choy-Li-Fatt Kungfu -- the former apparently gentle with short, inconspicuous movements, and is effective for close combat; while the latter is visible forceful with far-reaching, spectacular movements, suitable for open-space fighting. In the inevitable match with Leong Yi Tai, however, Yik Kam was so decidedly defeated that he implored Leong Yi Tai to teach him Wing Choon Kungfu.
Later Yik Kam became a renowned Wing Choon master, and the lineage of Wing Choon Kungfu from him is sometimes known as Opera-Troupe Wing Choon. It does not signify that this Wing Choon Kungfu is meant for performances in operas, but it is a token of respect for Leong Yi Tai of the Opera troupe from whom this lineage originated.
The Nga Wu (which means "Beautiful Lake") Village of Phoon Yue District invited Yik Kam to teach kungfu exclusively to members of the village. The Nga Wu Village eventually became well known for its kungfu excellence. Because Yik Kam was initially an expert on the Choy-Li-Fatt Style, the Wing Choon Kungfu he taught in Nga Wu Village was understandably influenced by Choy-Li-Fatt principles and techniques.
Yik Kam's outstanding disciple was Choe Tak Seng, who was succeeded by his son, Choe Chun, and his nephew, Choe On. When Choe On migrated to Malaysia he bought overseas the Wing Choon Kungfu that was once jealously kept within the Choe family.
Choe On's outstanding disciple was his younger cousin, Choe Hoong Choy, who was also a well known osteopath. To further his kungfu training, Choe Hoong Choy returned to China before the Second World War to learn from Choe Chun and to trace the history of Wing Choon Kungfu. With Choe Chun, Choe Hoong Choy recalled, he would spend months just to master one technique (one pattern)! They would stand at the characteristic goat-riding stance facing each other; Choe Chun would attack with a finger-thrust and Choe Hoong Choy would respond with a pinning hand. They repeated just this strike-response action literally thousands of times. Choe Hoong Choy who is presently teaching Wing Choon Kungfu at the Penang Phoon Yue Association (written at about 1997) is my Wing Choon teacher.
White Choon Flower and Wing Choon White Crane
There are two styles of kungfu frequently confused with Wing Choon Kungfu, and these are Wing Choon Flower Style and Wing Choon White Crane. In the Shaolin Monastery there was a chamber known as Ever Spring Chamber. In Chinese, "ever spring" and "poetic spring" (the name of the founder of Wing Choon Kungfu) are pronounced exactly alike as "wing choon", although the written characters are slightly different.
The style of Shaolin Kungfu taught in this Ever Spring Chamber (Wing Choon Chamber) was Flower Style kungfu, a specialty of Miu Mein mentioned earlier, and this style is sometimes called Wing Choon Flower Style. This style is suitable for people of small built, and some of its features and principles are similar to those of Wing Choon Kungfu. Although there is at present insufficient evidence to confirm it, it is not unjustifiable to speculate from related materials that this style of Shaolin Kungfu Yim Wing Choon learned from Ng Mui might be this Flower Style itself.
For instance, a famous exponent of this Flower Style was Foong Sai Yoke, the grandson of Miu Hein. Foong Sai Yoke was also a pet of Ng Mui, and had learnt from her. Foong's kungfu was typically Flower Style, suggesting that this style was the favorite of Ng Mui. It is likely that Ng Mui would also teach her favourite style, Flower Style, to her other pet, Yim Wing Choon, especially that this style was the most suitable for ladies.
Wing Choon White Crane was also connected to Wing Choon Kungfu in its historical background. This style was very popular in the home province of Yim Wing Choon. The "Wing Choon" of Wing Choon White Crane is named after the Wing Choon District (Ever Spring District) in Fujian Province, from where this style developed. The term "Wing Choon" is prefixed to White Crane so as to distinguish it the other White Crane Style described earlier -- the style that is also known as Lama Kungfu or Hap Ka Kungfu.
These two White Crane styles, nevertheless, are vastly different in principles, form as well as application. This is because kungfu exponents, at different time and places, might draw inspiration from the Crane, they interpreted or emphasized different aspects of this Shaolin animal form. White Choon White Crane, however, is similar to the White Crane Style of Wu Chu Kungfu, written as "Wuzuquan" in Romanized Chinese.
Like Wing Choon Kungfu, Wing Choon White Crane was closely associated with a lady called Fong Chit Liang. It is not sure whether she founded this style of kungfu. According to a legend, her father learned it from the Crane Spirit who appeared as an old man, but it is certain that she was an excellent exponent and greatly helped to propagate this style. Also like Wing Choon Kungfu, Wing Choon White Crane frequently uses the four-six stance. In fact, Yim Wing Choon might have adopted this stance from this Crane style. But while most of the early exponents of Wing Choon Kungfu were Cantonese, those of Wing Choon White Crane were Hokkien, or Fujianese -- a clear indication, of their historical-geographical background.
Yim Wing Choon, the founder, must be a very practical lady; she did not believe in decorative patterns to please spectators, nor would she waste time over two movements when one movement is sufficient to subdue an opponent. Consequently, one important principle of Wing Choon Kungfu is its economy of movement.
Economy of Movement
Here are two series of combative actions which illustrate that Wing Choon techniques are short and fast. In the first series to defend against an opponent's straight punch, I retreat my right leg, lower my right hand, and move my left hand forward to block the opponent's punch. Then I thrust my right fingers at the opponent's throat. This response involves much movement, and is not typical of Wing Choon Kungfu.
The second series shows a typical Wing Choon defence and counter-attack, where there is little movement. I merely move my left hand sideway to block the opponent's punch. I need not move my legs, and my right hand remains at the frontal position with its double functions of guarding possible further attacks and of being ready for a speedy counter-strike at the opponent. Immediately I thrust my fingers at his throat. Notice that there is less movement used in this attack as the distance travelled by the attacking hand is considerably shorter.
This economy of movement of Wing Choon Kungfu not only enables the exponent to execute his attack and defence faster technically, but also helps him to conserve energy as he needs less effort to produce similar result.
In conjunction with this principle of economical or little movement, Wing Choon attacks are normally straight-line attacks, for the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. Straight-line attacks, like straight punches and thrust kicks, are technically faster than circular attacks, such as swinging punches and round-house kicks. If two persons, A and B, attack at the same time, and if both are equally fast, A's attack will strike B, when B's attack is still in the process of its execution.
And if A's attack is decisive, killing or seriously injuring B, B's attack would be stopped before its completion. In Wing Choon Kungfu, strikes are generally decisive. This principle of "straight against circular" is frequently used by Wing Choon exponents in combat.
Hence, circular attacks -- like sweeping punches, downward chops, horn-punch, leg-sweep and round-house kick -- are generally absent in Wing Choon techniques. This does not necessarily imply that circular attacks are inferior. If they were so, circular attacks would have been virtually superseded in all forms of kungfu. The fact that circular attacks are often used in some styles of kungfu, as in Tai Chi Chuan and Choy-Li-Fatt, confirms that they still have their purposes in certain situations.
When Yim Wing Choon crystallized Wing Choon Kungfu by simplifying the extensive Shaolin Kungfu she had learnt, she had to choose between the advantages (and setbacks) of straight and circular attacks; and in view of her requirements and circumstances, she preferred straight attacks. In the same way, little movement is preferred to big movements, because they conserve energy and are technically faster, although big movements may sometimes be useful in certain situations, and therefore are found in other styles of kungfu, like Lohan Style and Lama Kungfu.
Thrust-finger aiming at the throat
Because of physical differences, a lady could not endure as long as a man could in a fight. Secondly, a lady's strike on a man is normally not as destructive as a similar strike made by a man on a lady. If a lady hits a man on his chest, stomach or limbs -- unless she has tremendous power or inner force -- it is not likely to hurt the man badly. Thus, a lady may be technically more skilful than a man, and be able to hit him several times, but unless she can executes disabling blows, eventually she will still be overcome by the man's endurance and sheer strength.
To overcome these physical setbacks, it is necessary for a lady's strikes to be decisive, that is, each strike by itself must be capable of decisively defeating an opponent without further fighting. As Wing Choon Kungfu is specially meant for the comparatively small against the big and strong, all strikes are decisive. There is no place for strikes that do not hurt seriously, nor for strikes that are meant to play with an opponent, to show him how skilful the exponent is.
Wing Choon strikes are therefore always aimed at the weak spots of a person, particularly the eyes, the face, the throat, the solar plexus, the external reproductive organs, the spine and the kidneys. To get the best results, the appropriate kind of fist or hand-form is used to execute a particular strike.
Wing Choon Hand-Forms
The major hand-forms of attack in Wing Choon Kungfu are the finger thrust, the cup fist and the phoenix-eye fist. The level fist, which is commonly used in many systems of martial arts, is not used in Wing Choon Kungfu. This is because much hard-force is required to administer the level-fist effectually, but hard-force is not congenial to Wing Choon Kungfu.
The finger-thrust is used especially against the eyes and the throat. The thrusting of the fingers resembles a snake shooting out. This attacking technique is often used because it is both vicious and fast. To use a fist for a similar strikes is technically less suitable.
The cup-fist is mainly used against the face, such as against the nose and the chin. A well-executed cup-fist to the chin, thrusted slantingly from below may cause a big, strong opponent to faint! This is because the vibration of soft-force channelled by the cup-fist at the chin, can affect the brain. The cup-fist is seldom used against other parts of the body, especially those parts protected by tough muscles or hard bones. Unless the attacker has much inner force, a cup-fist strike to a hard area of the body is not likely to hurt decisively.
The phoenix-eye fist is an ideal attacking hand-form the temple, the solar plexus, the spine, the kidneys and those soft spots where the ordinary fist with its wider surface area would not hurt. As much force is concentrated at the small knuckle of the index finger, and not all over the fist area, the phoenix-eye fist is extremely destructive. Executed by an exponent with inner force, a strike made with this phoenix-eye fist may cause severe internal injury on an opponent.
The phoenix-eye fist and also the leopard fist are not found in the kungfu sets taught by some Wing Choon masters, although these two types of fists are found in the Wing Choon sets I have learnt. There is insufficient historical evidence at present to indicate whether the phoenix-eye fist and the leopard fist were found in the original Wing Choon sets practiced by the founder, or whether they were later appended by later masters. Nevertheless, from logical deduction, it is justifiable to believe that the phoenix-eye fist was probably present in the prototype sets, because the phoenix-eye fist is an ideal fist-form for ladies, fixes excellently into Wing Choon principles, and is found in the Wing Choon Wooden Dummy Techniques (which will be described in Chapter 8.) This last reason indicates that the phoenix-eye fist may not be emphasized by some Wing Choon exponents in their kungfu sets, it is nevertheless a part of Wing Choon Kungfu.
the leopard fist, I believe, is probably a later addition by Wing Choon masters who found this fist-form useful. Sometimes known as the ginger-fist, the leopard fist is formed by clenching the fist at the second finger joints. It is a hard-force fist and is a frequently used in Choy-Li-Fatt Kungfu. The leapard fist is effective against an opponent's throat, side-ribs and groins. As the lineage of Wing Choon masters from whom I derived Wing Choon Kungfu were greatly influenced by Choy-Li-Fatt Kungfu, I think this leopard fist was incorporated into Wing Choon hand-forms by them. Hence, in attempting to be as near as possible to the style of Wing Choon Kungfu first introduced by the founder, I introduce in the Wing Choon set in the following chapter, the phoenix-eye fist but not the leopard fist.
Thrust kick in Wing Choon Kungfu
Kicks in Wing Choon Kungfu
The appropriate hand-forms are used to strike the various weak spots of the body: for example, the finger-thrust against the throat and the eyes of the upper body, and the phoenix-eye fist against the solar plexus and the kidneys of the middle body. Against the lower body, such as the dan tian (i.e. the central vital point about 2 inches below the naval) and the external reproductive organs, the thrust kick is used. Unless one is squatting facing an extremely tall opponent, the thrust kick is superior to other hand techniques in attacking an opponent's lower body.
The thrust kick is never high. Some variation, nevertheless, are possible, thus enriching the martial functions of this kick and making it an intriguing technique when employed by a dexterous master.
There are some good reasons why kicking techniques are sporadic in Wing Choon Kungfu. Firstly, hard force is generally necessary for an officious kick, but in Wing Choon Kungfu hard force is not accentuated. It is easier to channel soft force through the palms and fingers than through the legs.
Secondly, for a kick to be decisively destructive, it has to be aimed at an opponent's vital spots, like the head, the heart or the groins. It does not, for example, effect decisive distructiveness if a kicking technique merely succeeds in tripping an opponent to the ground. He would rise and fight again. Except for the groins, the dan tian and the kidneys -- against which the thrust kick is used -- kicks to other vital spots are unnecessarily high. High kicks are easily noticeable and involve much movements -- two principles contrary to Wing Choon principles. It is technically faster and less conspicuous to strike an opponent's head or chest with the hand.
The third reason is social-historical. The founder of Wing Choon Kungfu was a lady, and it was unbecoming for a lady to raise her leg high. Even if she was to discard social conventions in a fight, it would not be convenient for her to kick high, as ladies at that time generally wore long skirts. Even now, with the hemplines of some skirts having gone up the thighs, many ladies still hesitate to expose themselves in a high kick. In this respect, amongst others, Wing Choon Kungfu is ideal for the modern lady.
The Principle of Dodging
Decisive striking offers a sound principle of attack for a lady, or a physically smaller person, against a bigger, stronger opponent. But what about defence, one may ask. How would a lady block an attack coming from an opponent twice her size?
It is startling that many martial artists consider blocking as the only means of defence. For convenience, the term "Blocking" is used here to include all related techniques of deflecting an opponent's attack, like "sinking", "floating' and "slapping". Every attack, some people erraneously imagine, must be blocked or pushed away to avoid being hit. To block an attack that is overwhelmingly powerful is pernicious because the attack may still penetrate the defence by its sheer force.
The other principle of defence besides changing the course of attack by blocking, is to move target away from the attack. This method of defence is generally termed "dodging", and it can be realized in numerous ways -- by moving backwards, downwards, upwards, sideways or even forwards!
Many people would move backwards to dodge an attack, because this appears the safest, and is technically the easiest. In Wing Choon Kungfu, however, the exponent seldom moves backwards. By moving backwards, one may escape the attack, but he also misses a golden opportunity for counter-attacking, because he has moved out of the immediate sphere of combat. This golden opportunity, referred to in kungfu phraseology as "the instant when an opponent's old strength is spent, and his new strength has not started", is one of the best moment to counter-attack an opponent.
As an opponent attacks, a Wing Choon exponent often moves forward diagonally and counter-attacks simultaneously, as in the picture below. By moving forward diagonally, he moves himself away form the attack, and at the same time moves closer to the opponent for a counter-attack. This, of course, demands much skills. In this "attack-in-defence" principle, which examplifies the superior tactic used in Wing Choon Kungfu, the Wing Choon exponent strikes the opponent almost instantly the latter begins his attack.
Minumm against Maximum
Sometimes, however, the combat situation is such that blocking is necessary or advantageous. When blocking is preferred to dodging, two ingenious principles are applied to aid the Wing Choon exponent, presumably smaller-sized, against a powerful attack. The first principle is circular defence. Much of the attacking force can ne minimized if we block the attack in a curve, and not directly, preferably following its attacking momentum.
the "circling hand" and the "pinning hand" (which will be explained in the following chapter) are good examples of this circular blocking technique. It is interesting to note that while its attacking movements are generally straight-lined, Wing Choon Kungfu is not devoid of circular movements, as some people erraneously believe.
The other principle adopted to block a powerful attack is co-ordinating body movement. When blocking, the body is moved slightly aside from the direct power of the attack, so that the exponent now faces the opponent from a slight angle, and not directly as before.
This co-ordinating body movement can be realized by rotating the body from the waist, or by moving one leg forward to the four-six stance. As a Wing Choon exponent blocks with this co-ordinating body movement, he usually counter-attacks at the same time.
The principles of co-ordinating body movement and circular block are inter-related, and are therefore often used complementarily. The "guard-hand" is an excellent example of the combination of these two principles.
The "guard-hand" or "bong-sau"
In my personal way, the guard-hand provided me with an illuminating experience in my appreciation of Wing Choon techniques. Before I learned Wing Choon Kungfu, I wondered how the forearm in this downward position of the guard-hand could be effectively used to block a powerful attack. It would be more appropriate, I though, if the forward were in the upward position, i.e. with the fingers pointing upward, for then it would be easier to use strength. Only when I understand the principles of co-ordinating body movement and circular block, I realize the excellence of this technique, which manifests the profundity in the apparent simplicity of Wing Choon Kungfu. The paramount factor of the guard-hand is not the blocking action, but the co-ordinating body movement.
By rotating the body the exponent moves the target away from the attack. Moreover, the rotating movement guides the attacking hand forward and sideways, following its momentum, so that only minimum strength is needed to deflect the attack, and also that the exponent's guard-hand is now nearer the opponent for a counter-attack. This pattern is aptly called a guard-hand, and not a block, because the hand is actually meant to guard against possible changes from the opponent.
Notice also that the combative functions of the opponent's other hand are minimized because the hand is at the "outer-gate" away from the immediate sphere of combat. Notice too that in executing the guard-hand, it is often not necessary to move the feet when rotating the body. If needed, however, the feet will be moved accordingly. For example, if the opponent retreats, the exponent will move forward swiftly to a bow-arrow stance to bridge the gap so that a counter-strike can be launched effectively.
Wing Choon Stances
Another interesting feature of Wing Choon Kungfu is its stances. The horse-riding stance, which is the most important stance in many styles of Shaolin kungfu, is seldom used in Siku Lin Tou, the fundamental set of Wing Choon Kungfu, although it is used in weapon sets. The horse-riding stance is replaced by the goat-riding stance, probably because Yim Wing Choon found the horse-riding stance too side and less agile for her requirements.
the goat-riding stance is a typical Wing Choon stance. Because of its narrow base, it is very suitable for ladies wearing skirts. It is also a comparatively agile stance, as the centre of gravity of the stance is comparatively high, allowing the exponent to shift position easily. Moreover, it is not as tiring nor demanding as the horse-riding stance in its training process.
The bow-arrow stance, another major Shaolin stances, is retained in Wing Choon Kungfu, but it is not used as frequently as in other Shaolin styles. Where the bow-arrow stance is normally used in other styles, in Wing Choon Kungfu it is replaced by the four-six stance.
The four-six stance is also known as the stream-character stance, because it resembles the Chinese character "chuan", which means "stream". It is called four-six stance because about four-tenth of the body weight is supported by the front leg, and six-tenth by the back leg. This four-six ration, however, is not absolute but flexible; more weight may be shifted to the front or the back leg whenever it suits the particular combat situation.
The four-six stance also serves the function of the false-leg stance, another important Shaolin stance. Thus, the false-leg stance is generally absent in Wing Choon Kungfu. However, in bow-arrow stance, the false-leg stance as well as the horse-riding stance are normally used, whereas the goat-riding stance and the four-six stance are generally absent.
The four-six stance acts as an effective combination of the false-leg stance and the bow-arrow stance. In many other styles of kungfu, the false-leg stance is frequently adopted while blocking an opponent's attack, because it absorbs or "swallows" the opponent's force. Immediately after blocking, the bow-arrow stance is used while counter-attacking, because this stance brings the exponent nearer to the opponent. In Wing Choon Kungfu, in accordance with the principle of little movements, the four-six stance is adopted for both the block and the simultaneous counter-attack.
If the distance between the exponent and the opponent is too side apart for an effective counter-strike using the four-six stance, for instance, the opponent may retreat his front leg immediately after his initial attack, then the bow-arrow stance is used to add reach and force.
the goat-riding stance and the four-six stance, while frequently used in Wing Choon Kungfu, are not common in many other styles of kungfu. The four-six stance, nevertheless, is often used in some styles like Wu Chu Kungfu and Pakua Kungfu. Some people who are familiar with the popular styles, like Hoong Ka and Praying Mantis, may think Wing Choon Kungfu unorthrodox. If they see a Wing Choon demonstration, they will probably not be impressed, and may wonder how such simple, prosaic stuff can be used for combat. Yim Wing Choon was enticingly strategical: she did not aim for flowery exhibition of her fighting art; she aimed to defeat opponents decisively and fast, using only minimum effort and with less physical strength. When one becomes familiar with Wing Choon principles and applications, he may marvel at the profundity found in the baffling simplicity of this fascinating combative art.
Grandmaster Wong Kiew Kit,
16th July 2019.
Introduction to Wing Choon Kungfu
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